Mathematics is the science of space, number and quantity.
The traditional division of mathematics into sub-disciplines is as follows:
- Arithmetic - The study of whole numbers and fractions.
- Sample theorem: If you subtract an odd number from an even number you get an odd number.
- Geometry - The study of figures in space; points, lines, curves and three-dimensional objects.
- Sample theorem: The angles in a triangle on a flat surface add up to 180 degrees.
- Algebra - The use of abstract symbols to represent mathematical objects (numbers, lines, matrices, transformations), and the study of the rules for combining those symbols.
- Sample theorem: For any two numbers [math]a[/math] and [math]b[/math], [math](a + b) * (a - b)\,=\,a^2\,-\,b^2[/math].
- Analysis - The study of limits.
- Sample theorem: The harmonic series is divergent; it increases without limit.
Modern mathematics of course contains much more than this; there is set theory, complex analysis, statistics, topology, and lots more. The area of mathematics that is concerned with numbers - though not just prime numbers - is called number theory.